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Today the fast-food store was able to sell a total of 119 specials. Chicken Littles were the bestselling special for the day since the business was able to sell a total of 25 pieces which yielded a total of \$87.50. On the other hand, the Yummy Burger did poorly today in the market since we were only able to sell 17 pieces and its cost is the least of all. On average the business earned a total of \$50.50 from each special.

Conditions to use median rather than the mean as a measure of the central tendency

The median is better to use as a measure of the central tendency than the mean when the data under study comprises of outliers. For example, if we are examining the income of 10 households and 9 of them has their income ranging between \$20,000 and \$100,000 annually and one household has an income of \$1,000,000,000.
The median is best to use when we are analyzing data that is from a strongly skewed distribution. For example, when we have scores for 10 students’ performance in a test and 8 of them have scores ranging from 70 to 80 while the two have 30 and 50 respectively.

Toy July sales August Sales September sales mean sales median
Slammer \$12,345.00 \$14,453.00 \$15,435.00 \$14,077.67 \$14,453.00
Radar Zinger \$31,454.00 \$34,567.00 \$29,678.00 \$31,899.67 \$31,454.00
Potato Gun \$3,253.00 \$3,121.00 \$5,131.00 \$3,835.00 \$3,253.00
mean Sales \$15,684.00 \$17,380.33 \$16,748.00 \$16,604.11

median \$12,345.00 \$14,453.00 \$15,435.00

12/1 through 12/7 12/8 through 12/15 12/16 through 12/23
0-4 years 12 14 15
5-9 years 15 12 14
10-14 years 12 24 21
15-19 years 38 12 19
Mean
Median

Mean = (12+15+12+38)/4 = 19.25 mean = (14+12+24+12)/4 = 15.5 mean = (15+14+21+19) = 17.25
Median = (15+12)/2 = 13.5 median = (12+14)/ 2 = 13 median = (14+15)/2 = 17
The most useful measure of central tendency is the mean since the data is not skewed nor does it have outliers.

Why is the range the most convenient measure of dispersion yet the most imprecise of variability? When would you use the range?
The range only gives information about the extreme values but not about the typical values, hence the use of is limited. We can only use the range when it is narrow- meaning that when there are no outliers.

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From the data given it is evident that the number of passengers who use evening flights are generally more than those who use morning flights. (The mean of the number of passengers in the morning is 245 while that of evening flights is 297.)
Also there is large number of flights to Washington followed by to number of passengers who travel to Kansas City and to Providence respectively. It can noted that there are more passenger who take flights on Fridays to each city than on Thursday to the same city.

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Alan Mulally and His Transformation of the Ford Motor Company

Long before the Great Recession, Ford had run in tough shape (Hoffman, 2012). Allan Mulally took over the leadership of the company in 2006, a time when it was headed for closure. Since the early 1990’s, Ford had lost about 25 percent of its market share to its competitors (Hoffman, 2012). This was a period when Ford held a great deal of high end products including Volvo, Aston Martin, Land Rover, and Jaguar. For all this time, none of these brands was selling. They needed an amassment of capital to be able to compete effectively in the vehicle industry. For a better part of the 20th century, Japanese automakers controlled the market, acting as pure monopolies in different parts of Europe, America, and Asia. Generally, production costs were high with the cost of labor rising as high as \$76 per hour (Hoffman, 2012). This made the firm’s operating margins lag both overseas and at home. Ford’s products were altogether uncompetitive and thus a total overhaul of the company’s operational framework was needed. The much needed change came with the appointment of Allan Mulally as the leader of the company.

In his struggle to revive the company as one of the major automaker firms in the industry, Mulally drafted a plan he dubbed ‘One Ford’ (Hoffman, 2012). His plan did not sound one that would redeem the company from its current situation to many critics. However, as months passed, his plan was integrating all the major components necessary to spur the company to the direction of innovation. Mulally used an integration referred to as ‘sponsor spine.’ Sponsor spine is an high end innovation strategy that not only builds on accomplishment of visions and development of new products but the capacity of an enterprise to drive and contain modernized thinking from one partner to another, one function to another, and one team to another. In his innovation framework, Mulally drafted four major ideas that would change the company for in the long term. These included bringing together all Ford employees as a worldwide team, leveraging the company’s distinctive assets and knowledge on automotives, building trucks and cars that people would prefer to competitors’ products, and arranging for the financing that would foresee the implementation of the entire plan. At the start of the implementation of this plan, the Ford announced a fire up of its product development, workforce competitiveness, financial health, and strategic vision (Hoffman, 2012).

Mullaly reengineered Ford as a mobility company. As a starting point, he acknowledged that the core function of the company did not just lie in the production of cars and trucks but also in the kind of technology to be used to make this a success. For Mulally, technology in the motor industry was key and thus he planned to make this a selling point for the company’s products. Products developed at Ford Company were to become powerhouses in an industry otherwise dominated by consumer electronics. The company would turn trucks and cars into communication and entertainment mobile centers, moving in correspondence with the fast growing social media and smartphone industry (Hoffman, 2012). One of these moves was the introduction of MyFord Touch entertainment panel that was located on a central position in a car, replacing a location previously occupied by radio. This innovation was a breakthrough in the automobile industry with many companies imitating the idea. Through this technology, a driver could engage technology through unique applications, verbalized commands, and radio systems that were growing beyond the expectations of the modern consumers. At present, major automakers have followed Ford’s innovations, incorporating technology in automobiles in the form information centers and mobile entertainment.
In the One Ford plan, Mulally created a platform of collaboration and accountability across the Ford’s leadership structures. Mullaly initiated a transformational culture whose core business was to innovate. This was heckled at the start of his tenure where he stated that the company had been running out of business for the last 40 years (Hoffman, 2012). This statement created a bargaining platform for the CEO with the United Auto Workers. As a result of this negotiation, labor rates were reduced by a whopping \$20 per hour to land at \$55 per hour (Gifford, 2013). This action was not aimed of depriving workers of their income but a platform that was meant to create a safe landing for the company. This came a long way with reducing production costs threefold at the end of the first financial year of Mulally’s tenure. Mulally would not stop until he influenced the way everything was conducted within the company. He changed the way employees treated one another, the way contractual agreements were made with suppliers, and the way meetings were chaired. Before Mulally took over leadership at Ford, meetings were dominated by executives who sought self-preservation over group effort. All meetings were characterized by combat for supremacy. However, Mulally changed all these by creating a meeting environment where issues would be discussed without passing blame from one individual to another. The way to innovation success dominated the better part of all meetings (Gifford, 2013).

In his meetings, Mulally initiated a ‘Traffic Light’ system where he would get reports on key initiatives underway in the company (Gifford, 2013). A project that bore a green light denoted a pass, a yellow light meant some improvement was direly needed, and a red light asserted the need for an instantaneous change of course. In their initial stages, most of the projects initiated by Mulally showing yellow light. At Ford, Mulally is renowned for paving the way for outstanding execution. Contrary to the beliefs of many innovation strategists, Mulally advanced a system where new products were developed in line with those that consumers had valued in the previous years. For instance, instead of developing purely new products, he redesigned the Fiesta, Focus, and Taurus brands not only in the United States but also across the world (Gifford, 2013). Mulally wiped out weaker automobile brands and introduced a leaner and simpler product line that was channeled to customer service excellence, product development, and manufacturing excellence.

Before Mulally’s appointment, Ford used to develop a different plan each ending year. Whenever one plan did not materialize, the company developed a new one. However, Mulally’s plan was far much different. Based on the four points, working as a team, designing cars and trucks according to customers’ preferences, and leveraging Ford’s worldwide assets, he constructed very simple plans which employees found easy to implement. Mulally would reemphasize on the four points in all kind of meetings and press conferences he summoned. In general, Mulally advocated for coming up with one idea and sticking to it (Schermerhorn, 2012).

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From the start of his tenure, Mulally did not take long to realize that Ford did not just constitute a single product, that is one Ford. In essence, there were many Fords. He realized that there was Ford of Africa, Ford of Asia, Ford of Europe, and a number of other divisions and subsidiaries across the world (Hoffman, 2012). In addition, he realized there has only a little coordination between the company’s many parts. At the implementation of the One Ford plan, Mulally devised sub-plans that would help integrate these many regional divisions into one worldwide enterprise. This, he knew, would be a milestone towards the creation of economies of scale. A multinational automotive powerhouse would also be developed as a result. In the initial stages of the One Ford implementation plan, Ford Company did not show any sign of progress and thus critics were quick to go against Mulally’s one way plan. When asked of a possible merger to boost the company’s capital base, Mulally, suggested that Ford would only merge with itself. This showed Mulally’s rigidity to One Ford plan and an impossibility to a change of course (Schermerhorn, 2012).

From the time of the introduction of the One Ford plan, Ford Company has made tremendous progress in the automobile industry. For instance, the company has been successful in developing EcoBoost Engine, enhancing efficiency in fuel consumption in most of its automobiles. Over the last five years, Ford has generated about \$50 billion in revenues. The once deteriorating company is now selling its shares at \$13 (Hoffman, 2012). This is a 500 percent increase in share price compared to the price in 2009. What has left many people wondering is that when Mulally joined Ford in 2006, he was naïve in the industry. However, he understood all that was needed to change a volatile culture that would grow a business, a brand, and people (Schermerhorn, 2012).

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A huge percentage of America’s massive prison is getting older by the day(Rushing, 2010). Decades ago the Criminal Justice System handed out very long sentences to a large number of prisoners(Rushing, 2010).These sentences are today contributing to the growing percentage of aging prisoners in American prisons. Both federal and state governments are today dedicating special units, facilities, and resources just for the elderly across the U.S. prisons. With the recent economic crisis, the issue has become more adverse. Today, locking up an elderly inmate costs almost three times more than imprisoning younger prisoners. This is a new challenge that the U.S.Criminal Justice System faces. It reflects the changing demographics of the population of prisons in the U.S. The number of older people in the U.S. prisons is exponentially growing. Particularly, the percentage of inmates 60 years old and above has in the past six years increased by more than 60 percent (Williams, Stern, M., Mellow, Safer, & Greifinger, 2012). This is despite the fact that the overall federal and state prison population have stayed rather flat. The number of prison sentences between 2002 and 2011 both under federal and state jurisdictions have only increased by 19 percent, while that of older inmates, those over 60 years old have increased by 80 percent (Kerbs & Jolley, 2014). The present problems experienced by prison departments across the nation are the result of lack of information and proper training of prison staff and can be solved by better elderly training programs.

The 60 percent growth in the population of elderly inmates had momentous medical, behavioral, and social implications on the correctional management inside and outside the institutions. Managers of correctional facilities are now appreciating the enormity of their duty and responsibilities with regard to the issues, such as safety, protection, socialization, recreation, and health related to aging inmates. For instance, working with aging inmates involves treating prisoners with pasts characterized by excess smoking, alcohol drinking, heavy physical labor, and sexual promiscuity, which taken together impact the healthy aging. As a result, entry into the prison environment makes prisoners with any preexisting conditions or symptoms vulnerable. Their conditions are likely to deteriorate, since medical service in prisons usually are a little behind external medicine especially in terms of offering the required treatment. Health concerns such as neurological, psychiatric, gastrointestinal, neurological, musculoskeletal, respiratory, cardiovascular, and dermatological conditions remain untreated, especially, in older adult inmates (Krabill & Aday, 2011). Additionally, the environmental hazards related to the prison environment mostly make it impossible for inmates to avoid aging. Most aging prisoners have different experiences with the correctional system, service needs, or medical problems, and background demographics (Kerbs & Jolley, 2014). These, coupled with long sentence lengths and prisoners’ histories are often important determinants of stressors that inmates face while in prison, coping mechanisms adopted for adjustment purposes, and engagement in health-seeking behaviors. These elderly inmates face diverse problems in certain areas including nurturing and maintaining external relations, developing and keeping internal relations, and physiological deterioration. Therefore, solutions that address the challenges brought about by older prison population such as health, social, and medical needs, as well as costs.
Currently, there is limited availability of elderly training programs meant to educate correctional system officials who are outside the healthcare profession. In this respect, it is vital to develop and implement sound elderly training programs. These would open up opportunities specifically designed for correctional system officers such as prison wardens, prison healthcare staff, as well as custodial staff to be more informed and knowledgeable about the diverse needs and common health situations of aging adults (Williams et al., 2012). Therefore, introducing and making such training programs available will ensure that the services and care that is provided for elderly prisoners guarantee their physical safety, comfort and health.

Elderly prisoners usually suffer from prison-based functional impairment. For instance, an older adult inmate may not be able to independently climb onto a top bunk bed, something that is expected of them in prison(Rushing, 2010). It is therefore important for officers in the correctional system to be able to identify the triaging, as well as to distinguish the differences between prison-based functional impairment and community-based functional impairment. This would give them the opportunity to identify elderly inmates in need of additional assistance, support, as well as supervision as a result of functional impairment.

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With quite a huge number of the prisoner population aging, there are certain medical conditions that are common among older inmates. The prevalence of dementia is usually associated with age. However, in prison inmates often possess certain common risks factors for dementia such as low levels of education, alcohol and drug abuse, as well as traumatic brain injury (Williams et al., 2012). It is therefore imperative for the criminal justice system to design an ideal cognitive screening tool that will be used for screening prisoners for dementia. This would ensure that medical conditions such as dementia are identified early enough and proper care accorded. This will lower the cost of healthcare and guarantee a somewhat safer environment for aging prisoners. Additionally, this will be a great step towards making lives better for aging prisoners.

Older women that are 55 years old and above make up 5 percent of the entire prison population of the older prisoners above 55(Williams et al., 2012). Aging women prisoners, apparently, have diverse and different needs compared to aging men. In fact, compared to men women need more health care and medical services. This is because women have different health care usage patterns. Therefore, there is a need for expanded research on the population and lives of aging women prisoners. This will help inform and guide professionals in the criminal justice system on the unique social and health issues that may affect aging women inmates. The results from the expanded research will ensure that special programs are designed to address the medical and health care needs of aging women prisoners.

Correctional institutions are today facing problems in regards to the accommodation needs of the aging prison population. Walkers and wheelchairs are two examples of ambulatory and transport requirements that most correctional facilities do not have(Rushing, 2010). Elderly accommodation units will bring aging populations together in centralized locations and have the ability to improve the safety of aging prisoners and decrease the costs associated with care, as well as increase aging prisoners’ access to care. In this regard, correctional facilities should look to design new plans that will guarantee assisted living as well as skilled nursing care for elderly inmates (Williams et al., 2012). They should also consider low toilets, low beds, and assistive devices that are age-friendly. Addressing these accommodation needs will ensure that the services and care that is provided for elderly prisoners ensures their physical safety, comfort and health needs are catered for.

The solutions proposed in this paper however, may be considered by critics and skeptics as being too expensive and maybe needless. However, it is vital to note that, for safety, fiscal, and health reasons, these changes are important. Health care professionals and other professionals involved in the correctional system must take steps to recognize the different and diverse needs of the aging prisoners. They should also make sure that expectations, services, and care that is provided for elderly prisoners ensures their safety and health needs.

There is no point in grappling with the high costs spent for taking care of elderly prisoners if there can be no policy change to minimize costs and make the lives of elderly prisoners better. As discussed above, change in approach is necessary as far as caring for elder men and women in prisons is concerned owing to their unique social, medical and functional needs. Apart from engaging prison staff in elderly care programs, research on ways to handle elderly prisoners could also lead to the discovery of cheaper, as well as more effective programs. As far as housing or accommodation is concerned, having separate wings in prison housing units specially designed for elderly prisoners could have unimaginable benefits. Most of these solutions hinge on the point that some of the problems experienced in prisons with aging prisoners are preventable. After all, has it not always been said that prevention is better than cure?